Languages are Structured, but the structures concerned are only partly systematic and interrelated. Explain and illustrate.
In order to illustrate I have chose an English theorist Saussure, he said language is a systematic structure linking thought and sound; he said language sounds be a series of arbitrary linguistic signs.
Therefore only some parts are systematic if for example grammar explains structured language by concentrating on compound and complex sentences and different kinds of subordinate clauses then there will be many variables. Additionally in the example of nouns modified by adjectives but not by adverbs then this lexically is not related however it is interrelated.
The second explanation is that Saussure said the language system and its usage would be determined from memories. However Chomsky said competence and performance can be full competence, reduced competence and thirdly he provides only a lexical thematic hypothesis.
For example the English verb know is connected to knowing but when translated in French knowing is two verbs together so again this is only partly systematic. This link between words and phrases at early acquisition stages only represents an illustration the broad relations in the argument of noun phrases.
Lexical Learning though does not predict language development in terms of change. In conclusion students language is only partly structured because studies have proved communication is innate, however in education the system of acquiring knowledge as a student is a different kettle of fish.
Explain ‘adverb.’ Do you agree that it is more helpful to sub-divide this word class into one or more different sub-classes?
Adverb (Adv) is one of the essential eight parts of speech in English. An example in English is the word ‘backwards’ in this answer of a question. How do you walk? I walk backwards.
If you split up this word back is the good verb however wards seems an unusual Morphological paradigm. Sub classes have been set up to avoid these strange classes. A sub –class of this is adverbial phrase (Adv) and is called sometimes adjunct i.e. urgently.
Adverbs can be used to described time i.e. yesterday.
Verbs are however in other languages words are built from just adjectives. Take French for example these adverbs would be called feminine adjectives. Verbs are connected always to adjectives however a linking verb can have an adverb next to it.
Adverbs are an important part of the English curriculum and are called heterogeneous however in Language acquisitions adverbs are confusing. That is why these sub-classes I feel must exist.