Cultural Pro Hegemony

Elections are coming up soon so I thought I would plug my new book.

Cultural Pro Hegemony is the title of my new book in my head. The title is actually old, between 60’s and seventies.

The title tracks back to pre pro Marxism along the lines of Marxist Pro Hegemony. I thought it suited the style that I have fallen into here on Democracy and World Peace. First I explain why then will go into more about where I will have picked up this stance, then hopefully I will explore more of getting out of this rut.

Cultural pro hegemony as I see it is part of urbanisation. Pro Marxism hegemony came about during a critical time in history when economically lots of people were struggling to make ends meet. Arguably it was also a time of great prosperity, take baby boomers for example. During the sixties and seventies I sure you agree ‘baby boomers’ did really well. The critical train of thought was developed out of necessity for change. A handful of scholars took what they liked from Marx’s historical citations about how urbanisation works and blended it with politics. Which is why it’s become prominent in this day and age.

By unearthing the problems and going on about problems in a light hearted way the media use this model and sensationalized the mundane political policies. This is understood still by politicians and media involved servants. Both understand the model but may not be consciously aware of using it. Media studies during the eighties came about from Cultural Studies that had to look at these things.

This was at a time when Indiana Jones would have taught in colleges. Anthropology and exploring the world for artifacts became popular, whilst in the entertainment sphere popular music was taking of in a big way. Musicians were avoiding political baise in the lyrics to sell records to the mass youth market. Youth empowered by reasonably priced wireless radios. Radio stations funded by political donations were able to leverage opinion and test lots of ideas out. And one of them was the witty side of Carl Marx. Carl Young and Einstein all have similar faces, the three all have that Santa Clause look about them. With that said bearing in mind the industrial era of the workhouse had by then phased out. In order to get things in shape I observe this is why perhaps all the literature of use in Marx’s words perspective had value. Labour was still the stable occupation and higher education was far more elite. The memories of two world wars left an imprint on hearts and minds of citizens. They learned new ways of staying cheerful and it’s these coping strategies that gave metropolis nations an appetite for critical theory.

Van Gogh coined a great term about his art. He said: “…If I could eat my paintings I would…”

We all know the low ebbs people in the lime light comedians and musicians go through. Similarly regardless of class structure we all experience ‘Hard Times’ even politician’s, lawyers, bankers and public services. So what we needed was something to take the edge of serious subjects. Satire grew in the city as it did in France during the French Revolution. Linear texts adopted taking things through a fine tooth comb.

This is something I would just like to explore in a book. If anything it as it did in the beginning generate peace, just depends on your own cultural humour. That is why a discipline is formed. The cans and cannots. These sorts of experiments although unearthing appeal to the masses.

A justified argument to throw in the mix is that there are not enough solutions found.

So where should I draw the line in the sand? All over the world everyone want a piece of this knowledge, but culturally there are all sorts of cultural and theological hang ups. If you can think of some examples from any era or present I invite you to leave them below in the comments. Thanks.

Media Journalism and Communications by Robert [Audio]

This is my first podcast on Podbean about Media. I graduated in media four years ago.

media squirrelThis is my first podcast on Podbean about Media. I graduated in media four years ago.

Peace and the world structure

The binary opposite of Culture is economy. But what has been revealed through the scrutiny of the banks and the realisation of Banks being the important part of society we see information being the key currency.

Recently there has been a great big challenge on the society that forged the concepts of democracy. Some of these geopolitical notions have been forged by the locals of the U.S.A. Ironically the culture of this country is relatively small according to the time-span of Egypt or the Romans however the art has considerably moved from all over the globe to the American land. Take for example London Bridge. Dismantled then re-erected in the US.

The relationship with the U.K. and the USA has always been strong ever since the lamenting of the independence. The binary opposite of Culture is economy. But what has been revealed through the scrutiny of the banks and the realisation of Banks being the important part of society we see information being the key currency. However without the banks infrastructure the banks cannot generate this commodity.

For example is we in Britain need oil or some other commodity we can trade our knowledge.

Administration skills have shown to improve the finances of countries. However debt is a key principle in this relationship. I am guessing this reinforced the liquidity of information.

Art is information and we interpret this in many different ways but eventually when the effects become popular and the statistical data supports this then we can trade this format to other similar cultural environments. This forges relationships between Liberal minded people all over the planet.

The education available is so powerful it has unfortunately one side affect.

That is the cashless society we now live in.

This principle operates on many levels one of which that I’d like to highlight is the effect on the industry.

E-books being distributed freely are being sold for subscription as am sure your aware we live in a cashless society, that is everything seems to be free.

The modes of address have shifted and the problem of the maths and spaces to transfer data have increased. The www2 is already in place and the possibilities are endless. Politically it was inevitable when the government announced it’s proposals for ID  cards.

By rounding up all the information consumerism will not only change your freedom of choice but literally replace thoughts, leaving you to concentrate on things like leisure time, games and entertainment (Culture).

Supportively we’ve spent the past 40 years academically in a world where the leading minds have defined the word culture. Economically this created an explosion of entertainment. But too much of anything has confused the brains of middle class society. We live in a tolerable society, with dances to show our appreciation of anything, labels have commonalities and leisure has been packaged in many different packages. I just hope you can all continue to pay for these disposable products.

Waste is another factor of culture, were running out of room for antiques and the i-sores of history are being passed on geographically. We are now dumping rubbish in the remotest of areas.

In conclusion is democracy is an affordable principle? If America can still afford to carry the Democratic banner then what can it do to police this situation fairly. If they cannot afford this luxury who can? Finally world peace is only fair by inclusion of major representatives (some of which becomes lost in translation within the syntax of English) however what are we doing to educate these new thriving cities that are rapidly rising above the figures of debt. Mass producing for humans who can afford to use these disposable products in the name of fashion.

Journalism, Media and Modernity.

Journalism. To be within the boundaries of Ethics, a Journal – must subscribe to these particular values: the principles of — truthfulness, accuracyobjectivity, impartiality, fairness and public accountability. such codes can be found in news reporting organisations in most countries with freedom of the press.

Modernity a different term from modern times it is derived from Modernism, a movement in art based on the consciousness that through the mechanical age of industrialism, humankind has evolved into something very new – what that would be, would have to be explored by art, and all previous concepts questioned.

It is a society more technically, a complex of institutions – which unlike any preceding cultures lives in the future rather than the past” (A. Giddens,1998,p94). Giddens has been cited because he addressed a long-standing divide between those theorists who prioritised ‘macro level‘ studies of social life looking at the ‘big picture’ of society – and those who emphasise the ‘micro level‘ what everyday life means to individuals.

democratic cartoonsMedia

Or more specifically ‘Media studies‘ is as follows Media Studies in the tradition of empirical sciences like communication studies, sociology and economics generally focus on Mass Media, their political, social, economic and cultural role and impact in creating and distributing content to media audiences.

And in the tradition of humanities literary theory, film/video studiescultural studies and philosophy focus on the constitution of media and question in how far they shape what is regarded as knowledge and as communicable.

Media democracy is a production and distribution model which promotes a mass media system that informs and empowers all members of society, and enhances democratic values.

The term also refers to a modern social movement evident in countries all over the world which attempts to make mainstream media more accountable to the publics they serve and to create more democratic alternatives.


History Of Films.

Question 8.

Using no more than three films as examples assess the importance of technological developments for the movie industries.

In this broad context of films we may understand why we go to see them but are we aware of what goes on behind the scenes and how tricky it may have been to originally get the film on big screen.

how the big screen came to be so big and why this industry still today continues to create revenue for it’s Director’s, writers with there space brokering reviews.

Actors and bloopers, make up artists applying the new cosmetics quicker or how they’d had to adjust to changing pixels.

The cameramen and stunt men’s training and pushing boundaries through time and space as the diverse public demanded more.

The three films are two from the film noir era from Universal in 1925 The Phantom of the Opera.

To a personal favourite The Maltese Falcon starring Humphrey Bogart under the wing of Jack Warner.

Then the colour movie from British low budget cinematographer  My Little Eye – 2002, 95 minutes long another Thriller, that incorporated the big brother plot, so its 20’s, 40’s then into the 21st century.

The synopsis of each individual film in detail will have not enough relevance to the technological change but selected extracts may by example refer to the requirements.

Before all this cinematography and prestige through Mike Chopra Grant’s lecture a brief synopsis of how it used to be up to the cinema we know and love today.

‘In 1834 the Zeotrope was released by William Horner manufactured and patented for it’s moving pictures in a cylindrical container. 1888 the invention of the flexible film by  Eastman Kodak. 1891 Edison patented the Kinetograph a camera that projected in Kinetescope and two years later Edison  set up a film studio called Kinetoscope films then a year later the open and closing camera was invented my Thomas. By 1896 he’d also became famous for his vitascope projector. Mutoscope 1894 the spinning cards create a very short movie.

Early Black and white films were screened at a ratio of 133(1.37):1 (Academy).

Then colour came and described this as high fidelity 185:1 (Vista vision).

In Cinema scope the screen lengthened in size to 2.35:1 (Cinemascope).’                                                                        

Researched  by  Mike Chopra Gant(2006) The Phantom of the Opera has been remade since the early release back in the twenties not just in the cinema’s but also in the West End by the late Ken Hill who also wrote Crossroads a British soap in the late seventies and early 80’s.

But the original 1926 version was released by or at the Paris Opera it has been running for 17 years now.

Warner Bros re-released the film recently applying Andrew Lloyd Webbers version to cinema this film is a perfect example of the genre and following of what could only be classed as an original thriller that possibly influenced Tony Robbins comic cartoon and cinema rehash of V for Vendetta.

This Arty concept of the disfigured musician haunting the theatre began in 1910 in a French authors book called ‘Le Fantome de l’opera’ by Gaston Leroux.

The Universal Studio’s team had remarked whilst filming the original starring Lon Chaney that mysterious occurrences on set happened and also at that time the public were hideously shocked by the make up used to portray his disfigurement.

All these factors created a coherent message upon cultural and ideological concepts of the public that still progressed even now, you could I presume call this an institution.

Created by Hollywood’s stamp and a great novel with room to incorporate music all major factors of today’s media but remember this film was around the silent period, the music may have been played live upon an organ or gramophone.

At this time also the frames were less per second as well as the obvious invention of colour missing. The vocals supplemented with speech cards that bullet pointed the story and scene.

The French have always had interest in the cinema although America has had 80-85% of the revenue market and French by some as cited by Anne Jάckel as avant-garde surrealism and blockbusters such as these that come away from the EU’s branding of ‘auteur cinema’ and synonymy’s world-wide in this case. In 1993 a campaign called cultural exception in France revealed American films exported generated revenues of more than £2.5 billion so again it’s this revenue that created the Phantoms prestige today. This explains the horror value challenged assumptions about childhood innocence early said about penny dreadful and how the provincial audience are victims of the Medias effects more inclined towards middle brow radio listeners and ‘its The B movie was a direct response by Hollywood to the falling cinema audiences of the early Depression years.’(modern Times).

The big five in Hollywood in the 1930’s was Warner Brothers, Loews-MGM, Paramount, RKO and twentieth Century Fox. The little three were Universal, Columbia and finally United Artists. The first movie in New York had 5490 seating capacity and was classed as an A movie. (top quality film) this was set up in the radio musical Hall. 1948 the paramount decree stated a divorce between studios and there production from distribution and exhibition.

Moving on to the forties the infamous Humphrey Bogart (Sam Spade). Los Angeles again in Black and White with normal sound and dialect as we know today but in mono by RCA Sound Systems. Utilising the locations that merely added to Warner Bros theatrical illusion.

Casablanca journey and musical quotes of Play it again Sam that has been displaced humorously for television adverts selling Holstein Pils or the display of the importance of smoking at that time.

It was sold as good for you and advertised as a relaxant unlike today’s medical experiences and of course smoking in the auditoriums would have had sections for smokers that has often also been depicted in film clippings of say the soldiers watching projections the light silhouetting the smog.

Today television would be used or if you were lucky to see this film in the IMAX in 3D not the Creature of The Black Lagoon 3D of red and green goggles but some other pixel adjusted Jaws 3 version.

The film’s at this time shown would have been surrounded by political messages about the War the contingency of ‘Man’s ego and pride’ is levied in this American stars character. Even today we don’t see Russian characters fighting for us.

Ever since the cold war prior to the filming of this period but Kasper Gutman played by Sydney Greenstreet and Spades Yiddish comment to Alisha Cook Jr. who plays a woman with her own surname called Willmar Cook a ‘Gunsel’. The English interpretation of this being goose I use this only as a hint of the funding of Warner Bros Jewish influence.

Film financing was taxed on cinema tickets that increases the prices and it’s this key factor that contributed to the film companies introducing the class of movie, today I personally would class the Maltese Falcon [1941]  as a B movie.

Repeated on T.V year after year by BBC2 a (PG) film released at an expensive budget due to some of this film actually being filmed on location that merely adds to the tax exchange that would increase a revenue market for application before filming, the producers and director John Huston would have also lived this jet set lifestyle although his profile would not have been celebrity status as today with the improvement of new synergy around films and DVD’s of today’s home entertainment.

Incidentally internationalisation and it’s expansion since 1989 compared to 1999 figures in Spain (nearest the Madagascar) of the country’s investment in films has become threefold. 

By the 1960’s due to technology peoples lifestyle changed the locations seen on the big screen as a kid was now possible to be seen. For much more people they could relive the fantasy they derived from watching the movie, this universalisation and homogenisation was a consequence of these factors.

Unlike BBC’s early motto of education, inform and entertain the cinema has been more interested in action, visual drama no cliff hangers and incite happiness or rather feelings by showing locations, certain actors and great cars.

Today’s negative influence of reality TV influences many a conversation world wide.

Orson Wells notion of Big brother is watching us I chose an English funded film My Little Eye (2001)(95 mins) shot in Nova Scotia directed by Mark Evans idea of any Joe Bloggs being a star that adds to the five minutes of fame.

In 2001 WT Venture LLC when this production was released on DVD in this country two years later the synergy behind it’s double CD package (CD being a big part of the Silicone revolution) was equal I personally feel to the film, with directors explaining the filming, characters analysed through a computer interactive type affect that increase the analyse of film even though lacking any amazing plot the suspense as in all these films builds it up a merit that deserves mention.

Paul Du Gay: The circuit of culture intertwine between representation, identity,   production, consumption, regulation and representation and all contribute to the final film that which we see in the cinema remembering that technology does have a certain part to play but more so now than the majority of the 20th century. 

The Medias registers revolved around these movies, and how they conformed to the social attitudes at that time and suggest how values may have also been influenced be it the powers of the Warner Brothers.

Explained also the modes and conventions at the time of each movie and the conventions they were governed by at that particular time to how the film rose to almost and how dynamic cult status arrived remembering that America was an early player but striving to look globally of the movie industry’s effect on man and the Media.

l have analysed the dialogue of each film and my own dialogic. Briefly mentioned the synergy around the films then and now. The importance of amplification in the cinemas and the big screen and described each licence for the appropriate time of the film released to the re-runs today the B movies.

BIBLIOGRAPHY Briggs, A & Burke, P(2002) A Social History of the Media. Polity Press

Briggs, A and Cobley, P eds.(2002) The Media:An Introduction. 2nd Edition: Chapter 11. Cinema(Anne Jackel). Harlow Essex: Pearson Education Limited

Course Handbook. London North.(2006) BSc(Hons) Media Studies. Londonmet.pdf

Neil Youngs Film Lounge



Web CT by Mike Chopra-Gant.

Lectures by Dr Anna Gough-Yates, Dr. Chopra-Gant, Gholam Khiabany, June Porter, James Bennett, and finally Dr. Bill.
Work was done between Ladbroke House and the tower building in Holloway’s London Metropolitan

IT Impact on Media

Discuss the key impacts of information Technology in ONE of the following areas, Education, Health, Media or Work.

The Media as we know it today consists of five separate entities. These five are mediums in which we are delivered or may access through in a particular package.

The five are in no chronological order: Newspapers, Television, Radio, Magazines or Internet.

Appropriately this essay section of the booklet will consist of mainly the internet, although the research has been cited from various academic books recommended in the course booklet and suggested through Brian’s lecture 4 on what work is not when unpaid.

The internet alone has boosted the scope of advertising of the media reaching a vaster world wide public at a click of a button or minimal subscription depending upon the ownership of bandwidth, not only has this restricted the global communication language simplified bullet sales pitches and opened up a market to all age groups it’s cleverly educated many un-academic civilians.

Although at present the words Googled or the adverts synchronised from the fresh new guru writers that regularly pop up via web-blogging or web-publishing can not always be believed which is true for most advertisements this can be due to a misunderstanding this is called dis-enchantment.

The Media makes money, therefore this market is either a necessity to the public or just a suggestive fashionable faze that may impose particular needs on society that can be influenced by world wide changes but what’s more important is the targeting of a certain market that makes money for the large corporate company’s or the small time E-bay dealer alike.

Advertising plagues the net although it’s this key concept related to the Media that provides the web-blobs we have easy access today with free bandwidth there comes free advertising that’s governed by the key providers.

Microsoft or Apple Mac to BBC have all simply the technology for which these relationships co-exist together. As Marshall McLuhan once stated, “The medium is the message.

Originally Telnet owned by the American civil defence coming from deep within the Pentagon created the communication between providers.

You could assume that the internet was began through a mistaken idea that may also of created to some a monster as indeed in the past history’s doom and gloom of say the television.

Many blogs are quoting this question of IT impacts as September 11th and the speed in which information travels on a more personal level.

This is contrary, applicable to the relationship between ranks and disassociation of leaders.

I simply chose to explain this impact upon society. like a religion it carries other technologies surrounding mankind that devastate. A game of passing the mushroom cloud parcel, loaded with differences of opinions all shared within this generation of nuclear families.

Carl Marx’s observed these patterns way before the internet ever existed, he called it a distortion of existence, and we can apply Marx’s principles to many economic, state, law and educational factors that may already mentioned re-iterate the ‘Superstructure’ within the Status Quo of the internet; it’s control mechanism’s, the work within, the money it generates to the crushing of the ‘bourgeoisie’ but what of the older generation? We should not now though Marx has had his day.

Apparently the change of technology is happening so frequently that if you missed it before you’d be a fool to miss any golden opportunities.

Children are excelling in computer experiences; new phones, doing online business creating a free for all market.

Soon the youth of Western modern society will speak completely different universal languages and earn completely different wages predicted by comedian Marx. It’s Baurdillard who smoked up a storm about his claim of arguing against the topic he spoke and taught for years: Sociology.

The future of Information available through the internet has now integrated with videos recorded instantly. We see this in the changing soon of HD televisions, the digital era is officially here.

You Tube creating it’s own home made directors and even the likes of Big brother spoke about online is drip fed through this important medium called the internet.

Giving like a lottery this false hope of Winners not losers, there all just spin off’s created by the heated demand of psychologically loaded knowledge now craved in Modern society.

The consequences mean that we know longer need to step out the doorway, Tesco shopping online; pinning in of details and purchasing the latest video game be it Xbox3 or PC compatible and we wonder why the Media portrays violence, obviously it’s in our nature but all these postures renders a man incapable of striking the first blow. 

Computer technology is great for the brain but it’s influence now is so powerful that it’s beginning to affect the health of men and women; obesity instant poverty, fraud and square vision.

Precautions and health warnings have been there from the start but the scale of users has gone far beyond any predicted figures. The Internet has already become a necessity for those who can afford access.

This is saving of paper but increasing the demand for bandwidth. Compared to recycling supplemental paper is far eco-friendly and electricity as indeed Bandwidth is vastly huge and Mathematically difficult to measure.

Computers and calculators are all alike they quickly perform the brains work but underneath there programming of ones and zero’s as revolutionised by Telnet back in the 60’s is just simply different to how the brain operates, and it’s this superiority that protects us from any outside alienation between the computer and the human race.

On a lighter note lexically and Morphologically the world through the Media’s influence will not expand this has already been done all that can happen now is a regression of spelling and abbreviating the gaseous words.

Our reading skills have been increased because the Media information that comes with the nature of the Internet; cheap bandwidth and restricted usage like text messaging.

Personally since using the internet my life has been enriched, interaction, instant access to any questions, up to date specifications, networking (Cisco).

The curiosity has gripped me, it’s changed my movements; where I go how much time spent in doors because of this I am now studying Media yet still can not configure two computers together or explain the seven layers through which computer packages are sent but I have access to this previously taught knowledge any time with the help of broad band or a BT phone link.<


Abercrombie, N. (2004) Sociology: Short Introduction, Polity. Ch 5.

Althusser, Louis, (1984) Essays on Ideology Barker, Martin (with Julian Petley) (2001) Ill effects: the media/violence debate.London: Routledge

Baudrillard, J (1983) Simulations, New York City Press

Bilton, T et al (1996) Introductory Sociology Macmillan

Bottomore, Thomas (1996) ed.. A Dictionary of Marxist Thought.

Blackwell, 1991 Castells, M The Rise of The Network Society (1996) Blackwell

Crisell, Andrew (2002). An Introductory History of British Broadcasting. London: Routledge

Turkle, S (1997) Life on the screen: Identity in the age of the Internet. Touchstone

Special Thanks to Brian McDonough.